Logic is divided into two areas: formal logic and material logic. A brief summary of each is given below.
Formal Logic. Formal Logic is the art of right reasoning and teaches the student to analyse the term through the process of simple apprehension, the proposition through judgement and the syllogism through deductive inference. The student learns to formulate simple categorical syllogisms and detect fallacies in the same. This training to formulate a logical argument develops the analytical skills of the mind and the ability to both argue a point based on sound logical principals and to avoid sophisms. The student will then progress to formulating more complex syllogisms.
Material Logic. The student hereby shifts his or her attention from dialectics to metaphysical epistemology. This includes a study of the transcendentals: the one, the true, the good and the beautiful. If formal logic is concerned more with the validity of an argument, material logic is concerned more with the truth of an argument. The two studies united enable the student to formulate a sound argument.